Effect of Padzahr Tablet on Biochemical Indices of Bone Remodeling in Postmenopausal Females with Osteopenia: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial

Effect of Padzahr Tablet on Biochemical Indices of Bone Remodeling


  • Shabnam Rafiee Department of Traditional Medicine, School of Persian Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Arash Hossein-nezhad Section of Endocrinology, Diabetes, Nutrition, and Weight Management, Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA
  • Zhila Maghbooli MS Research Center, Neurosciences Institute of Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Arman Zargaran Department of Traditional Pharmacy, School of Persian Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Solaleh Emamgholipour Department of Clinical Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Afsaneh Ghasemi Shahid Akbarabadi Clinical Research Development Unit ( ShACRDU), School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Mehrnoosh Ahmadi Shahid Akbarabadi Clinical Research Development Unit ( ShACRDU), School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Hadi Esmaeeli Quality Assurance Department, NIAK Pharmaceutical Company, Golestan, Iran
  • Mehrdad Karimi Department of Traditional Medicine, School of Persian Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran




Padzahr, Women, Osteopenia, Clay, Persian Medicine, Bone


Background: Osteoporosis is a complex disease that poses major global public health challenges. Many individuals with osteoporosis turn to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for prevention and management. Due to its mineral contents, Padzahr, a type of clay used in traditional Persian medicine, is believed to have bone-forming properties. This study examined the impact of Padzahr on bone remodeling in postmenopausal women with low bone density.
Materials and Methods: In this randomized double-blind and placebo-controlled clinical trial, 48 postmenopausal women with osteopenia were included. The participants were divided into two groups, with 24 participants in each group. One group received Padzahr, and the other group received a placebo. The participants took their assigned treatment for 12 weeks. Blood samples were taken from participants at the study’s beginning and end to compare the two groups’ serum levels of bone remodeling biomarkers.
Results: At the outset of the study, the two groups were similar and there were no significant differences in any of the measured variables. Additionally, the levels of bone turnover markers were not significantly different between the two groups at the start of the study (P>0.05). After 12 weeks of treatment, the results of the ANCOVA analysis showed no significant changes in the serum levels of bone turnover indices when comparing the Padzahr group to the placebo group (P>0.05).
Conclusion: A clinical trial of 3 months of Padzahr treatment in postmenopausal women with osteopenia did not show significant changes in serum markers of bone turnover.


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